The most common methods for bending pipe and tube are ram, roll, rotary-draw, heat-induction, and sand-packing and hot-slab forming. Ram pipe bending was likely the first pipe bending method used to cold-form materials.
This pipe bending method compels a die against the pipe or tube with mechanical power, forcing the pipe to conform to the shapes of the die. Lacking internal support in the pipe, this tube bending procedure creates some cross-section ovality. The thinner the wall the more deformation of the pipe is seen.
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The maximum pipe bending angle is normally 90 degrees. This is a widely used pipe bending procedure where high levels of cross section ovality are suitable like furniture tubing, conduit, and handrails.
Throughout roll pipe bending, a string of spool-like rollers applies pressure to the pipe as it passes through them. Pipe bending operators alter the positioning of the rollers to create pipe of the desired radius.
This pipe bending procedure is great for forming helical pipe coils for heat transfer applications in addition to long sweeping sections like the ones used in steel construction-curved trusses and roof elements for structures requiring large open spaces. It deforms the pipe cross section very little for such sweeping segments.